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Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010

Schumann, Ulrich und Weinzierl, Bernadett und Reitebuch, Oliver und Schlager, Hans und Minikin, Andreas und Forster, Caroline und Baumann, Robert und Sailer, Thomas und Graf, Kaspar und Mannstein, Hermann und Voigt, Christiane und Rahm, Stephan und Simmet, Rudolf und Rüba, Hans und Scheibe, Monika und Schäuble, Dominik und Lichtenstern, Michael und Stock, Paul und Tafferner, Arnold und Rautenhaus, Marc und Gerz, Thomas und Ziereis, Helmut und Krautstrunk, Monika und Mallaun, Christian und Gayet, Jean-Francois und Lieke, Katrin und Kandler, Konrad und Ebert, Martin und Weinbruch, Stephan und Stohl, Andreas und Gasteiger, Josef und Groß, Silke und Freudenthaler, Volkert und Wiegner, Matthias und Ansmann, Albert und Tesche, Matthias und Olaffson, Haraldur und Sturm, Klaus (2011) Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, Seiten 2245-2279. DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-2245-2011. ISSN 1680-7316.

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Offizielle URL: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/2245/2011/

Kurzfassung

Airborne lidar and in-situ measurements of aerosols and trace gases were performed in volcanic ash plumes over Europe between Southern Germany and Iceland with the Falcon aircraft during the eruption period of the Eyjafjalla volcano between 19 April and 18 May 2010. Flight planning and measurement analyses were supported by a refined Meteosat ash product and trajectory model analysis. The volcanic ash plume was observed with lidar directly over the volcano and up to a distance of 2700 km downwind, and up to 120 h plume ages. Aged ash layers were between a few 100 m to 3 km deep, occurred between 1 and 7 km altitude, and were typically 100 to 300 km wide. Particles collected by impactors had diameters up to 20 m diameter, with size and age dependent composition. Ash mass concentrations were derived from optical particle spectrometers for a particle density of 2.6 g cm-3 and various values of the refractive index (RI, real part: 1.59; 3 values for the imaginary part: 0, 0.004 and 0.008). The mass concentrations, effective diameters and related optical properties were compared with ground-based lidar observations. Theoretical considerations of particle sedimentation constrain the particle diameters to those obtained for the lower RI values. The ash mass concentration results have an uncertainty of a factor of two. The maximum ash mass concentration encountered during the 17 flights with 34 ash plume penetrations was below 1 mg m-3. The Falcon flew in ash clouds up to about 0.8 mg m-3 for a few minutes and in an ash cloud with approximately 0.2 mg m-3 mean-concentration for about one hour without engine damage. The ash plumes were rather dry and correlated with considerable CO and SO2 increases and O3 decreases. To first order, ash concentration and SO2 mixing ratio in the plumes decreased by a factor of two within less than a day. In fresh plumes, the SO2 and CO concentration increases were correlated with the ash mass concentration. The ash plumes were often visible slantwise as faint dark layers, even for concentrations below 0.1 mg m-3. The large abundance of volatile Aitken mode particles suggests previous nucleation of sulfuric acid droplets. The effective diameters range between 0.2 and 3 µm with considerable surface and volume contributions from the Aitken and coarse mode aerosol, respectively. The distal ash mass flux on 2 May was of the order of 500 (240-1600) kg s-1. The volcano induced about 10 (2.5-50) Tg of distal ash mass and about 3 (0.6-23) Tg of SO2 during the whole eruption period. The results of the Falcon flights were used to support the responsible agencies in their decisions concerning air traffic in the presence of volcanic ash.

Dokumentart:Zeitschriftenbeitrag
Titel:Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010
Autoren:
AutorenInstitution oder E-Mail-Adresse der Autoren
Schumann, UlrichDLR, IPA
Weinzierl, BernadettDLR, IPA
Reitebuch, OliverDLR, IPA
Schlager, HansDLR, IPA
Minikin, AndreasDLR, IPA
Forster, CarolineDLR, IPA
Baumann, RobertDLR, IPA
Sailer, ThomasDLR, IPA
Graf, KasparDLR, IPA
Mannstein, HermannDLR, IPA
Voigt, ChristianeDLR, IPA
Rahm, StephanDLR, IPA
Simmet, RudolfDLR, IPA
Rüba, HansDLR, IPA
Scheibe, MonikaDLR, IPA
Schäuble, DominikDLR, IPA
Lichtenstern, MichaelDLR, IPA
Stock, PaulDLR, IPA
Tafferner, ArnoldDLR, IPA
Rautenhaus, MarcDLR, IPA
Gerz, ThomasDLR, IPA
Ziereis, HelmutDLR, IPA
Krautstrunk, MonikaDLR, FX
Mallaun, ChristianDLR, FX
Gayet, Jean-FrancoisLMD
Lieke, KatrinTU Darmstadt
Kandler, KonradTU Darmstadt
Ebert, MartinTU Darmstadt
Weinbruch, StephanTU Darmstadt
Stohl, AndreasNILU
Gasteiger, JosefLMU MIM
Groß, SilkeLMU MIM
Freudenthaler, VolkertLMU MIM
Wiegner, MatthiasLMU MIM
Ansmann, AlbertIfT Leipzig
Tesche, MatthiasIfT Leipzig
Olaffson, HaraldurUni Iceland
Sturm, KlausDWD Offenbach
Datum:2011
Erschienen in:Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Referierte Publikation:Ja
In Open Access:Ja
In SCOPUS:Ja
In ISI Web of Science:Ja
Band:11
DOI :10.5194/acp-11-2245-2011
Seitenbereich:Seiten 2245-2279
ISSN:1680-7316
Status:veröffentlicht
Stichwörter:Volcano, Iceland, Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjöll, Eyjafjalla, Falcon, Ash, Aviation, air, in-situ, Lidar, impactor, air composition
HGF - Forschungsbereich:Luftfahrt, Raumfahrt und Verkehr
HGF - Programm:Luftfahrt
HGF - Programmthema:L VU - Luftverkehr und Umwelt (alt)
DLR - Schwerpunkt:Luftfahrt
DLR - Forschungsgebiet:L VU - Luftverkehr und Umwelt
DLR - Teilgebiet (Projekt, Vorhaben):L - Schadstoffarmer Luftverkehr (alt)
Standort: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institute & Einrichtungen:Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre > Atmosphärische Spurenstoffe
Hinterlegt von: Prof.Dr.habil. Ulrich Schumann
Hinterlegt am:14 Mär 2011 12:02
Letzte Änderung:13 Nov 2014 16:35

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