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Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations

Straube, Ulrich und Berger, Thomas und Reitz, Guenther und Facius, Rainer und Fuglesang, Christer und Reiter, Thomas und Damann, Volker und Tognini, Michel (2010) Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations. Acta Astronautica, 66 (7-8), Seiten 963-973. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.10.004.

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Kurzfassung

Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei (“alpha particles”) and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

Dokumentart:Zeitschriftenbeitrag
Titel:Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations
Autoren:
AutorenInstitution oder E-Mail-Adresse der Autoren
Straube, Ulrich European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany and German Aerospace Center, DLR, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, 51143 Cologne, Germany
Berger, Thomas NICHT SPEZIFIZIERT
Reitz, Guenther NICHT SPEZIFIZIERT
Facius, Rainer NICHT SPEZIFIZIERT
Fuglesang, Christer European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany and Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden
Reiter, Thomas European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany and German Aerospace Center, DLR, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, 51143 Cologne, Germany
Damann, Volker European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany
Tognini, Michel European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany
Datum:2010
Erschienen in:Acta Astronautica
Referierte Publikation:Ja
In Open Access:Nein
In SCOPUS:Ja
In ISI Web of Science:Ja
Band:66
DOI :10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.10.004
Seitenbereich:Seiten 963-973
Verlag:Elsevier
Status:veröffentlicht
Stichwörter:Space radiation, Human space flight, Radiation protection, Crew medical support, Crew personal dosimetry, European Astronaut Center
HGF - Forschungsbereich:Verkehr und Weltraum (alt)
HGF - Programm:Weltraum (alt)
HGF - Programmthema:W FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen (alt)
DLR - Schwerpunkt:Weltraum
DLR - Forschungsgebiet:W FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Teilgebiet (Projekt, Vorhaben):W - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie (alt)
Standort: Köln-Porz
Institute & Einrichtungen:Institut für Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin > Strahlenbiologie
Hinterlegt von: Kerstin Kopp
Hinterlegt am:08 Mär 2010 09:49
Letzte Änderung:26 Mär 2013 13:14

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