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Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations

Straube, Ulrich and Berger, Thomas and Reitz, Guenther and Facius, Rainer and Fuglesang, Christer and Reiter, Thomas and Damann, Volker and Tognini, Michel (2010) Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations. Acta Astronautica, 66 (7-8), pp. 963-973. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.10.004.

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Abstract

Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei (“alpha particles”) and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

Document Type:Article
Title:Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of Authors
Straube, Ulrich European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany and German Aerospace Center, DLR, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, 51143 Cologne, Germany
Berger, Thomas UNSPECIFIED
Reitz, Guenther UNSPECIFIED
Facius, Rainer UNSPECIFIED
Fuglesang, Christer European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany and Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden
Reiter, Thomas European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany and German Aerospace Center, DLR, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, 51143 Cologne, Germany
Damann, Volker European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany
Tognini, Michel European Space Agency, ESA, European Astronaut Center, EAC, Crew Medical Support Office & Astronaut Division, PO Box 906096, 51127 Cologne, Germany
Date:2010
Journal or Publication Title:Acta Astronautica
Refereed publication:Yes
In Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:66
DOI:10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.10.004
Page Range:pp. 963-973
Publisher:Elsevier
Status:Published
Keywords:Space radiation, Human space flight, Radiation protection, Crew medical support, Crew personal dosimetry, European Astronaut Center
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)
HGF - Program:Space (old)
HGF - Program Themes:W FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen (old)
DLR - Research area:Space
DLR - Program:W FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):W - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie (old)
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Radiation Biology
Deposited By: Kerstin Kopp
Deposited On:08 Mar 2010 09:49
Last Modified:26 Mar 2013 13:14

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