Fuglestvedt, J. and Berntsen, T. and Eyring, V. and Isaksen, I.S.A. and Lee, D. and Sausen, R. (2009) Shipping emissions: From cooling to warming of climate – and reducing impacts on health. Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: doi:10.1021/es901944r. ISSN 0013-936X.
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Official URL: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es901944r
International shipping has been a fast growing sector of the global economy and its share of total anthropogenic emissions is significant, having effects on climate, air quality, and human health. The nature of the contribution to climate change is complex: In addition to warming by CO2 emissions, ship emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) cause cooling through effects on atmospheric particles and clouds, while nitrogen oxides (NOx) increase the levels of the greenhouse gas (GHG) ozone (O3) and reduce the GHG methane (CH4), causing warming and cooling, respectively. The result is a net global mean radiative forcing (RF) from the shipping sector that is strongly negative, leading to a global cooling effect today. However, new regulations of SO2 and NOx, while reducing air pollution and its harmful effects on health and water/soil acidification, will reduce this sector’s cooling effects. Given these reductions, shipping will, relative to present-day impacts, impart a “double warming” effect: one from CO2, and one from the reduction of SO2. Therefore, after some decades the net climate effect of shipping will shift from cooling to warming.
|Title:||Shipping emissions: From cooling to warming of climate – and reducing impacts on health|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Environmental Science & Technology|
|Keywords:||shipping, climate change, radiative forcing, aerosols, CO2|
|HGF - Research field:||Aeronautics, Space and Transport|
|HGF - Program:||Transport|
|HGF - Program Themes:||Transport System|
|DLR - Research area:||Transport|
|DLR - Program:||V VS - Verkehrssystem|
|DLR - Research theme (Project):||V - Umweltwirkungen des Verkehrs (old)|
|Institutes and Institutions:||Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Atmospheric Dynamics|
|Deposited By:||PD Dr. habil. Veronika Eyring|
|Deposited On:||03 Dec 2009 16:38|
|Last Modified:||07 Feb 2013 19:21|
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