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Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

Stohl, A. und Berg, T. und Breivik, K. und Burkhardt, J.F. und Eckhardt, S. und Fjæraa, A. und Forster, C. und Herber, A. und Lunder, C. und McMillan, W.W. und Manø, S. und Oltmans, S. und Shiobara, M. und Stebel, K. und Strøm, J. und Treffeisen, R. und Tørseth, K. und Virkkunen, K. und Yttri, K.E. und Spichtinger, N. (2007) Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic. In: 2007 AGU Fall Meeting. 2007 AGU Fall Meeting, 2007-12-10 - 2007-12-14, San Francisco, CA (USA).

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Kurzfassung

This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on the pollutant concentrations in the Arctic in spring and summer, even for species that are produced exclusively by humans, such as POPs.

Dokumentart:Konferenzbeitrag (Vortrag)
Titel:Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic
Autoren:
AutorenInstitution oder E-Mail-Adresse der Autoren
Stohl, A.NILU, Kjeller, N
Berg, T.Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim, N
Breivik, K.NILU, Kjeller, N
Burkhardt, J.F.NILU, Kjeller, N
Eckhardt, S.NILU, Kjeller, N
Fjæraa, A.NILU, Kjeller, N
Forster, C.NICHT SPEZIFIZIERT
Herber, A.AWI, Bremerhaven
Lunder, C.NILU, Kjeller, N
McMillan, W.W.Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, USA
Manø, S.NILU, Kjeller, N
Oltmans, S.NOAA, Boulder, USA
Shiobara, M.National Inst. of Polar Research, Tokyo, J
Stebel, K.NILU, Kjeller, N
Strøm, J.Stockholm Univ., S
Treffeisen, R.AWI, Bremerhaven
Tørseth, K.NILU, Kjeller, N
Virkkunen, K.Univ. of Lapland, Finland
Yttri, K.E.NILU, Kjeller, N
Spichtinger, N.TU München, München
Datum:25 August 2007
Erschienen in:2007 AGU Fall Meeting
Status:veröffentlicht
Stichwörter:Arctic air pollution, long-range transport, black carbon, POPs, Lagrangian transport modelling
Veranstaltungstitel:2007 AGU Fall Meeting
Veranstaltungsort:San Francisco, CA (USA)
Veranstaltungsart:internationale Konferenz
Veranstaltungsdatum:2007-12-10 - 2007-12-14
HGF - Forschungsbereich:Verkehr und Weltraum (alt)
HGF - Programm:Luftfahrt
HGF - Programmthema:L VU - Luftverkehr und Umwelt (alt)
DLR - Schwerpunkt:Luftfahrt
DLR - Forschungsgebiet:L VU - Luftverkehr und Umwelt
DLR - Teilgebiet (Projekt, Vorhaben):L - Luftverkehr und Wetter (alt)
Standort: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institute & Einrichtungen:Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre > Wolkenphysik und Verkehrsmeteorologie
Hinterlegt von: Dr. Caroline Forster
Hinterlegt am:07 Sep 2007
Letzte Änderung:15 Jan 2010 01:40

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