elib
DLR-Header
DLR-Logo -> http://www.dlr.de
DLR Portal Home | Imprint | Contact | Deutsch
Fontsize: [-] Text [+]

Multi-model simulations of the impact of international shipping on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate in 2000 and 2030

Eyring, V. and Stevenson, D.S. and Lauer, A. and Dentener, F.J. and Butler, T. and Collins, W.J. and Ellingsen, K. and Gauss, M. and Hauglustaine, D.A. and Isaksen, I.S.A. and Lawrence, M.G. and Richter, A. and Rodriguez, J.M. and Sanderson, M. and Strahan, S.E. and Sud, K. and Szopa, S. and van Noije, T.P.C. and Wild, O. (2007) Multi-model simulations of the impact of international shipping on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate in 2000 and 2030. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, pp. 757-780.

[img]
Preview
PDF - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
2MB

Official URL: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/757/2007/

Abstract

The global impact of shipping on atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing, as well as the associated uncertainties, have been quantified using an ensemble of ten state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models and a pre-defined set of emission data. The analysis is performed for present-day conditions (year 2000) and for two future ship emission scenarios. In one scenario ship emissions stabilize at 2000 levels; in the other ship emissions increase with a constant annual growth rate of 2.2% up to 2030 (termed the "Constant Growth Scenario" (CGS)). Most other anthropogenic emissions follow the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) A2 scenario, while biomass burning and natural emissions remain at year 2000 levels. An intercomparison of the model results with observations over the Northern Hemisphere (25°–60° N) oceanic regions in the lower troposphere showed that the models are capable to reproduce ozone (OH<sub>3</sub>) and nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NOH<sub>2</sub>) reasonably well, whereas sulphur dioxide (SOH<sub>2</sub>) in the marine boundary layer is significantly underestimated. The most pronounced changes in annual mean tropospheric NOH<sub>2</sub> and sulphate columns are simulated over the Baltic and North Seas. Other significant changes occur over the North Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico and along the main shipping lane from Europe to Asia, across the Red and Arabian Seas. Maximum contributions from shipping to annual mean near-surface OH<sub>3</sub> are found over the North Atlantic (5–6 ppbv in 2000; up to 8 ppbv in 2030). Ship contributions to tropospheric OH<sub>3</sub> columns over the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans reach 1 DU in 2000 and up to 1.8 DU in 2030. Tropospheric O<sub>3</sub> forcings due to shipping are 9.8±2.0 mW/m<sup>2</sup> in 2000 and 13.6±2.3 mW/m<sup>2</sup> in 2030. Whilst increasing OH<sub>3</sub>, ship NOx simultaneously enhances hydroxyl radicals over the remote ocean, reducing the global methane lifetime by 0.13 yr in 2000, and by up to 0.17 yr in 2030, introducing a negative radiative forcing. The models show future increases in NOx and OH<sub>3</sub> burden which scale almost linearly with increases in NOx emission totals. Increasing emissions from shipping would significantly counteract the benefits derived from reducing SOH<sub>2</sub> emissions from all other anthropogenic sources under the A2 scenario over the continents, for example in Europe. Globally, shipping contributes 3% to increases in OH<sub>3</sub> burden between 2000 and 2030, and 4.5% to increases in sulphate under A2/CGS. However, if future ground based emissions follow a more stringent scenario, the relative importance of ship emissions will increase. Inter-model differences in the simulated OH<sub>3</sub> contributions from ships are significantly smaller than estimated uncertainties stemming from the ship emission inventory, mainly the ship emission totals, the distribution of the emissions over the globe, and the neglect of ship plume dispersion.

Document Type:Article
Title:Multi-model simulations of the impact of international shipping on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate in 2000 and 2030
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of Authors
Eyring, V.UNSPECIFIED
Stevenson, D.S.Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Lauer, A.UNSPECIFIED
Dentener, F.J.Joint Research Centre of the Commission, Ispra, I
Butler, T.MPI, Mainz
Collins, W.J.Met Office, Exeter, UK
Ellingsen, K.Univ. of Oslo, Oslo, N
Gauss, M.Univ. of Oslo, Oslo, N
Hauglustaine, D.A.LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette, F
Isaksen, I.S.A.Univ. of Oslo, Oslo, N
Lawrence, M.G.MPI, Mainz
Richter, A.Univ. of Bremen, Bremen
Rodriguez, J.M.GEST, Maryland, Washington, DC, USA
Sanderson, M.Met Office, Exeter, UK
Strahan, S.E.GEST, Maryland, Washington, DC, USA
Sud, K.Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Yokohama, J
Szopa, S.LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette, F
van Noije, T.P.C.KNMI, De Bilt, NL
Wild, O.Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Date:2007
Journal or Publication Title:Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume:7
Page Range:pp. 757-780
Status:Published
Keywords:international shipping, global modelling, tropospheric ozone, sulphate, radiative forcing
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:V UR - Schonung von Umwelt und Ressourcen (old)
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V UR - Schonung von Umwelt und Ressourcen
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Umweltwirkungen des Verkehrs (old)
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Atmospheric Dynamics
Deposited By: Jana Freund
Deposited On:11 Sep 2007
Last Modified:12 Dec 2013 20:23

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Browse
Search
Help & Contact
Informationen
electronic library is running on EPrints 3.3.12
Copyright © 2008-2012 German Aerospace Center (DLR). All rights reserved.