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Classifying and Forecasting Coastal Upwellings in Lake Michigan Using Satellite Derived Temperature Images and Buoy Data

Plattner, Stefan and Mason, Doran M. and Leshkevich, George A. and Schwab, David J. and Rutherford, Edward S. (2006) Classifying and Forecasting Coastal Upwellings in Lake Michigan Using Satellite Derived Temperature Images and Buoy Data. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 32 (1), pp. 63-76. ISSN 0380-1330.

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Official URL: http://www.iaglr.org/jglr/db/view_contents.php?volume=32&issue=1&mode=toc

Abstract

Coastal upwellings are common in the Great Lakes but have lacked enumeration and systematic classification of spatial extent, frequency, duration, and magnitude. Near real-time sea surface temperature (SST) images derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) provide indices of upwelling events, but visual inspection of daily images can be tedious. Moreover, the definition of what constitutes an upwelling from AVHRR data is subjective. We developed a semi-automated method to classify upwellings during the period of thermal stratification using daily, cloud-free surface temperature charts from AVHRR SST data. Then we statistically evaluated the location, frequency, magnitude, extent, and duration of upwelling events in Lake Michigan from 1992–2000. Further, we analyzed meteorological data from the National Data Buoy Center buoys in an attempt to improve the reliability of the classification and to provide a means for future forecast of coastal upwelling. Although variable, upwelling events along the western shoreline were preceded by 4 days of southerly and west-to-northwesterly winds, while upwelling events occurring along the eastern shore were preceded by 4 days of northerly winds. Probability of an upwelling event occurring was a function of the direction-weighted wind speed, reaching a 100% probability at direction weighted wind speeds of 11 m s<sup>–1</sup> for the western shore. Probability of an upwelling occurrence along the east coast reached 73% at 11 m s<sup>–1</sup> and 100% at 13 m s<sup>–1</sup>. Continuous measurements of wind data with a sufficient temporal resolution are required during the entire upwelling season to improve the predictability of upwellings.

Document Type:Article
Title:Classifying and Forecasting Coastal Upwellings in Lake Michigan Using Satellite Derived Temperature Images and Buoy Data
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of Authors
Plattner, StefanUNSPECIFIED
Mason, Doran M.NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
Leshkevich, George A.NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
Schwab, David J.NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
Rutherford, Edward S.University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment
Date:March 2006
Journal or Publication Title:Journal of Great Lakes Research
Refereed publication:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:32
Page Range:pp. 63-76
Editors:
EditorsEmail
International Association for Great Lakes Research, UNSPECIFIED
Evans, Marlene S.UNSPECIFIED
ISSN:0380-1330
Status:Published
Keywords:Upwelling, Great Lakes, Lake Michigan, AVHRR, SST
HGF - Research field:other
HGF - Program:other
HGF - Program Themes:other
DLR - Research area:no assignement
DLR - Program:no assignment
DLR - Research theme (Project):W -- no assignement (old)
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:German Remote Sensing Data Center > Environment and Security > Environment and Geoinformation
Deposited By: Stefan Plattner
Deposited On:16 Aug 2006
Last Modified:27 Apr 2009 05:04

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