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The 1995-2002 Long-Term Monitoring of Comet C/1995 O1 (HALE-BOPP) at Radio Wavelength

Biver, N. and Bockelée-Morvan, D. and Colom, P. and Crovisier, J. and Henry, F. and Lellouch, E. and Winnberg, A. and Johansson, L.E.B. and Gunnarsson, M. and Rickman, H. and Rantakyrö, F. and Davies, J.K. and Dent, W.R.F. and Paubert, G. and Moreno, R. and Wink, J. and Despois, D. and Benford, D.J. and Gardner, M. and Lis, D.C. and Mehringer, D. and Phillips, T.G. and Rauer, H. (2002) The 1995-2002 Long-Term Monitoring of Comet C/1995 O1 (HALE-BOPP) at Radio Wavelength. Earth, Moon, and Planets, 90 (1), pp. 5-14.

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The bright comet Hale-Bopp provided the first opportunity to follow the outgassing rates of a number of molecular species over a large range of heliocentric distances. We present the results of our observing campaign at radio wavelengths which began in August 1995 and ended in January 2002. The observations were carried out with the telescopes of Nançay, IRAM, JCMT, CSO and, since September 1997, SEST. The lines of nine molecules (OH, CO, HCN, CH3OH, H2CO, H2S, CS, CH3CN and HNC) were monitored. CS, H2S, H2CO, CH3CN were detected up to rh= 3-4 AU from the Sun, while HCN and CH3OH were detected up to 6 AU. CO, which is the main driver of cometary activity at heliocentric distances larger than 3-4 AU, was last detected in August 2001, at rh= 14 AU. The gas production rates obtained from this programme contain important information on the nature of cometary ices, their thermal properties and sublimation mechanisms. Line shapes allow to measure gas expansion velocities, which, at large heliocentric distances, might be directly connected to the temperature of the nucleus surface. Inferred expansion velocity of the gas varied as rh-0.4 within 7 AU from the Sun, but remained close to 0.4 km s-1 further away. The CO spectra obtained at large rhare strongly blueshifted and indicative of an important day-to-night asymmetry in outgassing and expansion velocity. The kinetic temperature of the coma, estimated from the relative intensities of the CH3OH and CO lines, increased with decreasing rh, from about 10 K at 7 AU to 110 K around perihelion.

Document Type:Article
Additional Information: LIDO-Berichtsjahr=2003,
Title:The 1995-2002 Long-Term Monitoring of Comet C/1995 O1 (HALE-BOPP) at Radio Wavelength
AuthorsInstitution or Email of Authors
Biver, N.ESA/ESTEC, Sci-Sb, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands and LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France
Bockelée-Morvan, D.LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France
Colom, P.LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France
Crovisier, J.LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France
Henry, F.LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France
Lellouch, E.LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France
Winnberg, A.Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala, Sweden
Johansson, L.E.B.Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala, Sweden
Gunnarsson, M.Uppsala Astronomiska Observatorium, Uppsala, Sweden
Rickman, H.Uppsala Astronomiska Observatorium, Uppsala, Sweden
Rantakyrö, F.European Southern Observatory, Santiago, Chile
Davies, J.K.Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK
Dent, W.R.F.Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK
Paubert, G.IRAM, Granada, Spain
Moreno, R.IRAM, Saint Martin d'Héres, France
Wink, J.IRAM, Saint Martin d'Héres, France
Despois, D.Observatoire de Bordeaux, Floirac, France
Benford, D.J.Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Gardner, M.Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Lis, D.C.Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Mehringer, D.Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Phillips, T.G.Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA
Journal or Publication Title:Earth, Moon, and Planets
Refereed publication:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Page Range:pp. 5-14
Keywords:C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), comets, molecules, radio observations
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)
HGF - Program:Space (old)
HGF - Program Themes:W EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research area:Space
DLR - Program:W EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):UNSPECIFIED
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institut für Weltraumsensorik und Planetenerkundung
Deposited By: Susanne Pieth
Deposited On:08 Dec 2005
Last Modified:14 Jan 2010 19:26

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