Frey, M. and Hagemann, G. (1999) Flow Separation and Side-Loads in Rocket Nozzles. In: 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Los Angeles, CA, June 20-24, 1999.
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Flow separation in nozzles of rocket engines is undesired because it can lead to dangerous lateral forces, which might damage the nozzle. The origin of side-loads is not fully clear, although different possible origins were identified in the past. Meanwhile, it seems to be clear that in thrust-optimized or parabolic nozzles, a major side-load is due to the transition of separation pattern from free shock separation to restricted shock separation and vice versa. After a literature review, the reasons for the transition between the separation patterns are discussed, and the cap shock pattern, which is identified to be the cause of this transition, is closely analyzed. It turns out that this pattern can be interpreted as an inverse Mach reflection of the internal shock at the centerline. The separation and side-load behavior of thrust-optimized and parabolic nozzles is described in detail. In order to be able to predict the pressure ratio pc/pa at which the transition of separation patterns occurs, a model is developed which uses TDK-data as an input. With the oblique shock relations and a momentum balance, both the ratio of chamber to ambient pressure and the value of the lateral force can be predicted with fair accuracy.
|Document Type:||Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)|
|Title:||Flow Separation and Side-Loads in Rocket Nozzles|
|Journal or Publication Title:||35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit|
|Series Name:||AIAA 99-2815|
|Event Title:||35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Los Angeles, CA, June 20-24, 1999|
|HGF - Research field:||Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)|
|HGF - Program:||Space (old)|
|HGF - Program Themes:||W RP - Raumtransport|
|DLR - Research area:||Space|
|DLR - Program:||W RP - Raumtransport|
|DLR - Research theme (Project):||E -- no assignement|
|Institutes and Institutions:||Institute of Space Propulsion|
|Deposited By:||Monika Lohmiller|
|Deposited On:||16 Sep 2005|
|Last Modified:||06 Jan 2010 13:45|
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